Footnotes
... analysis.2.1
Testing a filter by sweeping an input sinusoid through a range of frequencies is often used in practice, especially when there might be some distortion that also needs to be measured. There are particular advantages to using exponentially swept sine-wave analysis [25], in which the sinusoidal frequency increases exponentially with respect to time. (The technique is sometimes also referred to as log-swept sine-wave analysis.) Swept-sine analysis can be viewed as a descendant of time-delay spectrometry.
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...real2.2
We may define a real filter as one whose output signal is real whenever its input signal is real.
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... sinusoid|textbf.2.3
Some authors refer to as a complex exponential, but it is useful to reserve that term for signals of the form , where . That is, complex exponentials are more generally allowed to have a non-constant exponential amplitude envelope. Note that all complex exponentials can be generated from two complex numbers, and , viz., . This topic is explored further in [83].
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... Octave,3.1
Users of Matlab will also need the Signal Processing Tool Box, which is available for an additional charge. Users of Octave will also need the free Octave Forge'' collection, which contains functions corresponding to the Signal Processing Tool Box.
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... language.3.2
In an effort to improve the matlab language, Octave does not maintain 100% compatibility with Matlab. See http://octave.sf.net/compatibility.html for details.
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... form.''3.3
As discussed in §5.3, a filter is said to be causal'' if its current output does not depend on future inputs. Direct-form filter implementations are discussed in Chapter 9.
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...filter3.4
Say help filter in Matlab or Octave to view the documentation. In Matlab, you can also say doc filter to view more detailed documentation in a Web browser.
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... 1.3.5
As we will learn in §5.1, A(1) is the coefficient of the current output sample, which is always normalized to 1. The actual feedback coefficients are .
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... execution.3.6
As a fine point, the fastest known FFT for power-of-2 lengths is the split-radix FFT--a hybrid of the radix-2 and radix-4 cases. See http://cnx.org/content/m12031/latest/ for more details.
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...MDFT.3.7
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/
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... matlab4.1
The term matlab'' (uncapitalized) will refer here to either Matlab or Octave [82]. Code described as matlab'' should run in either environment without modification.
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... completeness.4.2
Most plots in this book are optimized for Matlab. Octave uses gnuplot which is quite different from Matlab's handle-oriented graphics. In Octave, the plots will typically be visible, but the titles and axis labels are often incorrect due to the different semantics associated with statement ordering in the two cases.
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... frequency:4.3
As always, radian frequency is related to frequency in Hz by the relation . Also as always in this book, the sampling rate is denoted by . Since the frequency axis for digital signals goes from to (non-inclusive), we have , where denotes a half-open interval. Since the frequency is usually rejected in applications, it is more practical to take .
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... echo''.4.4
The minimum perceivable delay in audio work depends very much on how the filter is being used and also on what signals are being filtered. A few milliseconds of delay is usually not perceivable in the monaural case. Note, however, that delay perception is a function of frequency. One rule of thumb is that, to be perceived as instantaneous, a filter's delay should be kept below a few cycles at each frequency. A near-worst-case test signal for monaural filter-delay perception is an impulse (pure click). (A worst-case test would require some weighting vs. frequency.) Delay distortion is less noticeable if all frequencies in a signal are delayed by the same amount of time, since that preserves the original waveshape exactly and delays it as a whole. Otherwise transient smearing occurs, and the ear is fairly sensitive to onset synchrony across different frequency bands.
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...5.1
In principle, nonlinear filters can be considered a special case of time varying filters, since any variation in the filter coefficients must occur over time, and in the nonlinear case, this variation occurs in a manner that depends on the input signal sample values. However, since a constant signal (dc) does not vary over time, a nonlinear filter may also be time-invariant. The key test for nonlinearity is whether the filter coefficients change as a function of the input signal. A linear time-varying filter, on the other hand, must exhibit the same coefficient variation over time for all input signals.
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... outputs.5.2
When you think about it, everything is a filter.''
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... space5.3
A set of vectors (or ) is said to form a vector space if and for all , , and for all scalars (or ) [70].
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... purposes.5.4
For more about the mathematics of linear vector spaces, look into linear algebra [58] (which covers finite-dimensional linear vector spaces) and/or operator theory [56] (which treats the infinite-dimensional case). The mathematical treatments used in this book will be closer to complex analysis [14,43], but with some linear algebra concepts popping up from time to time, especially in the context of matlab examples. (The name matlab'' derives from matrix laboratory,'' and it was originally written by Cleve Moler to be an interactive desk-calculator front end for a library of numerical linear algebra subroutines (LINPACK and EISPACK). As a result, matlab syntax is designed to follow linear algebra notation as closely as possible.)
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... domain.6.1
The term difference equation'' is a discrete-time counterpart to the term differential equation'' in continuous time. LTI difference equations in discrete time correspond to linear differential equations with constant coefficients in continuous time. The subject of finite differences is devoted to discretizing'' differential equations to obtain difference equations [96,3].
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... scheme|textbf.6.2
The term explicit'' in this context means that the output at time can be computed using only past output samples , , etc. When solving partial differential equations numerically on a grid in 2 or more dimensions, it is possible to derive finite difference schemes which cannot be computed recursively, and these are termed implicit finite difference schemes [96,3]. Implicit schemes can often be converted to explicit schemes by a change of coordinates (e.g., to modal coordinates [85]).
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... filter.6.3
Instead of defining the impulse response as the response of the filter to , a unit-amplitude impulse arriving at time zero, we could equally well choose our standard impulse'' to be , an amplitude- impulse arriving at time . However, setting and makes the math simpler to write, as we will see.
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...MDFT6.4
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/
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...MDFT6.5
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/
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... sinusoid).6.6
We can also use the term stationary'' in place of steady state'' for signals that are a fixed linear combination of a finite number of sinusoids. However, in signal processing, the term stationary signal'' normally means stationary noise signal'', or, more precisely, stationary stochastic process''. In either case, we are simply talking about the decomposition of signals into transient and steady-state components, or transient and stationary components.
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... filters.6.7
A short tutorial on matrices appears in [83], available online at
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Matrices.html.
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...MDFT.6.8
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Matrix_Formulation_DFT.html.
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...MDFT6.9
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/
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... properties.6.10
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulant_matrix
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... follows:6.11
While this example is easily done by hand, the matlab function tf2ss can be used more generally (transfer function to state space'' conversion).
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... way.6.12
The methods discussed in this section are intended for LTI system identification. Many valued guitar-amplifier modes, of course, provide highly nonlinear distortion. Identification of nonlinear systems is a relatively advanced topic with lots of special techniques [25,17,97,4,86].
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... derive.6.13
There are many possible definitions of pseudoinverse for a matrix . The Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse is perhaps most natural because it gives the least-squares solution to the set of simultaneous linear equations , as we show later in this section.
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...Golub.6.14
Say help slash in Matlab.
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...7.1
Remember that the transfer function of a filter is defined by , where is the input-signal z transform, and is the output-signal z transform. If we have two filters and , and we arrange them in series such that filter 1 is applied first, followed by filter 2, then we have . Consequently, the overall transfer function becomes

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... terms,7.2
By the fundamental theorem of algebra, a polynomial of any degree can be completely factored as a product of one-zero polynomials, where the zeros may be complex.
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... coefficients.7.3
At the time of this writing, there is no residuez function for Octave, although it does have residue for continuous-time-filter (-plane transfer-function) partial fraction expansions. In §H.5, an implementation of residuez in termsof residue is provided.
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A biquad is simply a second-order filter section--see §10.1.6 for details.
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... function|textbf.7.5
The case is called a proper transfer function, and is termed improper.
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... on:7.6
These closed-form sums were quickly computed using the free symbolic mathematics program called maxima running under Linux, specifically by typing factor(ev(sum(m+1,m,0,n),simpsum)); followed by
factor(ev(sum(%,n,0,m),simpsum));.
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...B2.7.7
Since convolution is commutative, either operand to a convolution can be interpreted as the filter impulse-response while the other is interpreted as the input signal. However, in the matlab filter function, the operand designated as the input signal (3rd argument) determines the length to which the output signal is truncated.
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...freqzdemo2.8.1
The multiplot'' created by the plotfr utility (§H.4) cannot be saved to disk in Octave, although it looks fine on screen. In Matlab, there is no problem saving multiplots to disk.
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....8.2
The quantity is known as the para-Hermitian conjugate of the polynomial . It coincides with the ordinary complex conjugate along the unit circle, while elsewhere in the -plane, is replaced by and only the coefficients of are conjugated. A mathematical feature of the para-Hermitian conjugate is that is an analytic function of while is not.
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....9.1
As mentioned in §6.2 and discussed further in §B.1, the domain of the z transform can be extended to the rest of the complex plane by means of analytic continuation.
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... grow.9.2
As discussed in §6.8.5, the impulse response of a repeated pole of multiplicity at a point on the unit circle grows with amplitude envelope proportional to .
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...SmithPASP.9.3
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/pasp/Passive_Reflectances.html
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... time-constant|textbf9.4
Decay time constants were introduced in Book I [83] of this series (Exponentials''). The time constant is formally defined for exponential decays as the time it takes to decay by the factor . In audio signal processing, exponential decay times are normally defined instead as or , etc., where , e.g., is the time to decay by 60 dB. A quick calculation reveals that is a little less than seven time constants ( ).
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....9.5
The residue of a pole is simply the coefficient of as . See §6.8 for details.
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...MDFT10.1
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Two_s_Complement_Fixed_Point_Format.html
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...GrayAndMarkel75,MG,SmithPASP.10.2
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... tf2sos|textbf10.3
In Matlab, the Signal Processing Tool Box is required for second-order section support. In Octave, the free Octave-Forge add-on collection is required.
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... Octave.10.4
The Matlab Signal Processing Tool Box has even more -- say lookfor sos'' in Matlab to find them all.
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...10.5
As mentioned in §1.3.2, a real filter yields a real output signal for all real input signals. In particular, a filter is real if and only if each sample of its impulse response is real. IIR filters are real when each coefficient is real.
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... bandwidths10.6
See §C.6 for a definition of half-power bandwidth.
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... series.10.7
In this particular case, there is an even better structure known as a ladder filter that can be interpreted as a physical model of the vocal tract [48,86].
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...pfe).10.8
In practice, it is not critical to get the biquad numerators exactly right. In fact, the vowel still sounds ok if all the biquad numerators are set to 1, in which case, nulls are introduced between the formant resonances in the spectrum. The ear is not nearly as sensitive to spectral nulls as it is to spectral peaks. Furthermore, natural listening environments introduce nulls quite often, such as when a direct signal is mixed with its own reflection from a flat surface (such as a wall or floor).
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... overflow.11.1
A small chance of overflow remains because sinusoids at different frequencies can be delayed differently by the filter, causing an increased peak amplitude in the output due to phase realignment.
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...resonance11.2
A resonance may be defined as a local peak in the amplitude response of a filter, caused by a pole close to the unit circle.
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... case,11.3
In the case of complex coefficients , .
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... applications.11.4
For the reader with some background in analog circuit design, the dc blocker is the digital equivalent of the analog blocking capacitor.
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... response,11.5
See §8.1 in Chapter 8.
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... virtual11.6
The term virtual analog synthesis refers to digital implementations of classic analog synthesizers.
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...even.12.1
In the complex case, the zero-phase impulse response is Hermitian, i.e., .
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... algorithm.12.2
The remez function is implemented in the Matlab signal processing tool box and in the Octave Forge collection.
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... filter.12.3
They can also be derived as the sample delay of a length zero-phase filter, but this requires being able to interpolate the zero-phase filter coefficients using ideal bandlimited interpolation [91], which, in principle, results in an IIR filter.
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....13.1
Another way to show that all minimum-phase filters and their inverses are causal, using the Cauchy integral theorem from complex variables [14], is to consider a Laurent series expansion of the transfer function about any point on the unit circle. Because all poles are inside the unit circle (for either or ), the expansion is one-sided (no positive powers of ). A Laurent expansion about a point on the unit circle redefines unstable poles as noncausal exponentials (which decay toward ).
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... phase,13.2
The convolution of two minimum phase sequences is minimum phase, since this just doubles each pole and zero in place, so they remain inside the unit circle.
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...tmps.13.3
A Mathematica notebook for this purpose was written by Andrew Simper, available at
http://www.vellocet.com/dsp/MinimumPhase/MinimumPhase.html http://www.vellocet.com/dsp/MinimumPhase/MinimumPhase.nb
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...MDFT.A.1
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/ jos/mdft/Sinusoids_Exponentials.html
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...MDFT.A.2
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Discrete_Fourier_Transform_DFT.html
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...causalB.1
A signal is said to be causal if it is zero for all . A system is said to be causal if its response to an input never occurs before the input is received; thus, an LTI filter is a causal system whenever its impulse response is a causal signal.
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... order,B.2
The order of a pole is its multiplicity. For example, the function has a pole at of order 3.
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... there''.B.3
Note that, mathematically, our solution specifies that the mass position is zero prior to time 0. Since we are using the unilateral Laplace transform, there is really no such thing'' as time less than zero, so this is consistent. Using the bilateral Laplace transform, the same solution is obtained if the mass is at position for all negative time , and the driving force imparts a doublet having amplitude'' at time 0, i.e., , and all initial conditions are taken to be zero (as they must be for the bilateral Laplace transform). A doublet is defined as the time-derivative of the impulse signal (defined in Eq. (C.5)). In other words, impulsive inputs at time 0 can be used to set up arbitrary initial conditions. Specifically, the input slams the system into initial state at time 0.
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...causal|textbfD.1
Recall that a filter is said to be causal if its impulse response is zero for .
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... have,D.2
Note that the time-domain norm is unnormalized (which it must be) while the frequency-domain norm is normalized by . This is the cleanest choice of norm definitions for present purposes.
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... FiltersD.3
This section is relatively advanced and can be omitted without loss of continuity in what follows.
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... FiltersD.4
This section is relatively advanced and can be omitted without loss of continuity in what follows.
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... matrix,E.1
A short tutorial on matrices appears in [83], available online at
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Matrices.html.
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... elsewhere.E.2
I.e., , where is the identity matrix, and denotes the discrete-time impulse signal (which is 1 at time and zero for all ).
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... matrix.E.3
To emphasize something is a matrix, it is often typeset in a boldface font. In this appendix, however, capital letters are more often used to denote matrices.
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... series,E.4
Let , where is a square matrix. Then .
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....E.5
Equivalently, a causal transfer function contains a delay-free path whenever , since .
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... model.E.6
An exception arises when the model may be time varying. A time varying matrix, for example, will cause time-varying zeros in the system. These zeros may momentarily cancel poles, rendering them unobservable for a short time.
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... quasi-harmonicE.7
The overtones of a vibrating string are never exactly harmonic because all strings have some finite stiffness. This is why we call them overtones'' instead of harmonics.'' A perfectly flexible ideal string may have exactly harmonic overtones [55].
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... form.E.8
As of this writing, this function does not exist in Octave or Octave Forge, but it is easily simulated using sos2tf followed by tf2ss.
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... matlab.E.9
Specifically, this example was computed using Octave's tf2ss. Matlab gives a different but equivalent form in which the state variables are ordered in reverse. The effect is a permutation given by flipud(fliplr(M)), where M denotes the matrix A, B, or C. In other words, the two state-space models are obtained from each other using the similarity transformation matrix T=[0 0 1; 0 1 0; 1 0 0] (a simple permutation matrix).
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... numerically.E.10
If the Matlab Control Tool Box is available, there are higher level routines for manipulating state-space representations; type lookfor state-space'' in Matlab to obtain a summary, or do a search on the Mathworks website. Octave tends to provide its control-related routines in the base distribution of Octave.
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....E.11
In general, we can write an order Jordan block corresponding to eigenvalue as

where denotes the identity matrix, and

Note that , for has ones along the th superdiagonal and zeros elsewhere. Also, for . By the binomial theorem,

where denotes the binomial coefficient (also called  choose '' in probability theory). Thus,

where the zeros in the upper-right corner are valid for sufficiently large , and otherwise the indicated series is simply truncated.
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... matrix.F.1
Recursive filters are brought into this framework in the time-invariant case by dealing directly with their impulse response, or the so called moving average representation. Linear time-varying recursive filters have a matrix representation, but it is not easy to find. In general one must symbolically implement the equation and collect coefficients of .
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... dc).G.1
In other words, matching leading terms in the Taylor series expansion of about determines the poles as a function of the zeros, leaving the zeros unconstrained. It is shown in [63] that any filter of the form

is maximally flat at dc, where , with necessary to force a zero at . Choosing maximum flatness also at pushes all the zeros out to infinity, giving the simple form in Eq. (G.1). It is noted in [63] how the more general class of Butterworth lowpass filters can be used to provide maximum flatness at dc while obtaining more general spectral shapes, such as notches at specific finite frequencies.
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... causalG.2
is said to be causal if for .
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... Octave.H.1
On a Red Hat Fedora Core Linux system, octave-forge is presently in Fedora Extras'', so that one can simply type yum install octave-forge at a shell prompt (as root).
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... complex):H.2
Thanks to Matt Wright for contributing the original version of this example.
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...PASPI.1
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/pasp/Getting_Started_Synthesis_Tool.html
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